Potential Applications

Potential Therapeutic Application

Source Umbilical Cord Lining
Type of Stem Cells Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Epithelial Stem Cells (EpSCs)

Potential Treatment for

Tissue repair

  • Stroke
  • Heart Failure
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Orthopaedic indications (bone, cartilage, tendon repair)
  • Liver Failure

HSCs engraftment support

  • Shorten time of engraftment
  • Reduce immune system complications

Immune Modulation or Reconstitution

  • HIV
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Graft vs host disease (GvHD)

Wound/Soft Tissue Repair

  • Surface ulcer (diabetic)
  • Burns (radiation/tissue trauma)

Organ Lining Regeneration

  • Liver lining
  • Pancreatic lining
  • Gastrointestinal lining


  • Replacement of corneal membrane

Today, more than 8091 (as of August 2017) clinical trials are on-going worldwide to uncover the potential applications of umbilical cord lining stem cells. Thus far, encouraging results have been published; stem cell treatments have been proven safe and capable of repairing damage caused by stroke and heart disease. MSCs have also been used in combination with HSCs as a dual therapy to promote faster engraftment of HSCs and to reduce immune system complications2.

Although there is evidence that MSCs can be changed to certain types of Epithelial cells, the cells cannot be changed into Epithelial Stem Cells (EpSCs). The difference between Epithelial Stem Cells and Epithelial cells is that Epithelial Stem Cells can differentiate into all different epithelial cell types such as skin, cornea, lining of the gut, etc. on demand. Whereas, (non-stem) Epithelial cells have already reached terminal differentiation so the cells cannot be further changed into different Epithelial cell types when needed. Thus, MSCs and EpSCs cannot be replaced by each other.

1 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=mesenchymal&term=&cntry1=&state1=&Search=Search&type=Intr. Accessed August 20, 2017.
2 Battiwalla M, Hematti P. 2010. Cytotherapy. 1 January 2010.

Worldwide researches on diseases treated with MSCs by various Universities or Research Institutions:

Diseases Name of Universities/Research Institutions
Stroke Bundang Medical Centre, Seongnam-si,
Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea3
Spinal Cord Injury
  • Asan Medical Centre, Seoul, Republic of Korea4
  • Hospital de Neurorehabilitació, Barcelona, Spain5
Multiple Sclerosis University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan6
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States7
Parkinson's Disease The University of Texas Health Science Center, Texas, United States8
Multiple System Atrophy Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, United States9
Liver Disease Qi Zhang, Guangdong, China10
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Third Military Medical University, China11
Diabetes 1 University Medical School, Nanjing, China12
Diabetes 2 Mattabhorn Phornputkul, Chiang Mai, Thailand13
Rheumatoid Arthritis Stem Cell Institue, Panama City, Panama14
Knee Osteoarthritis Liaocheng City People's Hospital, Shandong, China15
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States16

3 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02378974. Accessed January 24, 2018.
4 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01676441. Accessed January 24, 2018.
5 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03003364. Accessed January 24, 2018.
6 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03326505. Accessed January 24, 2018.
7 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01609283. Accessed January 24, 2018.
8 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02611167. Accessed January 24, 2018.
9 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02315027. Accessed January 24, 2018.
10 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01844063. Accessed January 24, 2018.
11 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03248466. Accessed January 24, 2018.
12 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02763423. Accessed January 24, 2018.
13 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02286128. Accessed January 24, 2018.
14 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01985464. Accessed January 24, 2018.
15 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03166865. Accessed January 24, 2018.
16 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03171194. Accessed January 24, 2018.