Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
- Cardiovascular diseases (e.g. cardiac muscle repair)
- Orthopaedic applications (osteoarthritis, cartilage and tendon repair)
- Pulmonary fibrosis1
- Neurodegenerative disease:
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Developmental disorder:
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)4,5,6
- Cerebral palsy and paralysis
- Global Developmental Delay
- Spinal cord injury7
- Liver regeneration from liver failure8,9,10
HSC engraftment support11
- Shorten time of engraftment
- Reduce immune system complications
Immune modulation or reconstitution12
- Prevention and treatment of Graft vs Host Disease (GvHD)13
- Diabetes type 1 & 214
- Crohn's disease16
Cord Lining Epithelial Stem Cells (CLEpSCs)
Wound / soft tissue repair
- Disorder of upper respiratory system
- e.g. repair and regeneration of bronchial epithelium for smokers
- Surface ulcer (diabetic)
- Various types of burns17
- Tissue trauma
- Skin wounds
- Epidermal reconstitution18
- Gastrointestinal Tract27,28
- Corneal dermoid
- Corneal scars and opacities
- Corneal ulcers
- Dry eye syndromes
- Eye injury (e.g. chemical burn)
- Limbal deficiency
- Limbal corneal insufficiency syndrome
- Macular degenerative diseases:
- Age related myopia
- Stargardt's macular dystrophy
- Ocular surface disease
- Ocular damage due to Stevens Johnson Syndrome
As of September 2020, there are more than 1,276 clinical trials going on around the world to find out what umbilical cord lining stem cells could be used for.20 So far, encouraging results have been published. It has been shown that stem cell treatments are safe and capable of repairing damage caused by stroke and heart disease. HSCs have also been used with MSCs as a dual therapy to promote faster engraftment of HSCs and to reduce immune system complications.21
Even though there is evidence that epithelial cells (ECs) can be derived from MSCs, this does not make Cord Lining Epithelial Stem Cells (CLEpSCs) less important.
CLEpSCs are naive stem cells that come from the lining of the umbilical cord. They can turn into any type of EC on demand, such as skin, cornea, the lining of the gut, and so on. On the other hand, ECs have already reached terminal differentiation and are unable to change into different EC types.
Thus, we recommend you store both MSCs and CLEpSCs because they cannot replace each other.
1 Chuang HM, Shih TE, Lu KY, et al. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy of Pulmonary Fibrosis: Improvement with Target Combination. Cell Transplant. 2018;27(11): 15811587. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299195/
2 Wang F, Tang H, Zhu J, Zhang JH. Transplanting Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of Ischemic Stroke. Cell Transplant. 2018;27(12):1825-1834 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30251564
3 Xue P, Wang M, Yan G. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation as an effective treatment strategy for ischemic stroke in asia: a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2018; 14: 909928. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957058/
4 Shane, et al. Do the Stem Cells Really Work with Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Neuro-Immune Interaction? Autism Open Access. 2015; 5(3) https://www.longdom.org/open-access/do-the-stem-cells-really-work-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-associatedwith-neuroimmune-interaction-2165-7890-1000151.pdf
5 Liu Q, Chen MX, Sun L, et al. Rational use of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. World J Stem Cells. 2019; 11(2): 5572. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397804/
6 Siniscalco D, Kannan S, Semprn-Hern¡ndez N, et al. Stem cell therapy in autism: recent insights. Stem Cells Cloning. 2018; 11: 5567. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6204871/
7 Xu P, Yang X. The Efficacy and Safety of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for Spinal Cord Injury Patients: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Cell Transplant. 2019; 28(1): 3646. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322141/
8 Alfaifi M, Eom YW, Newsome PN, et al. Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for liver diseases. J Hepatol. 2018;68(6):1272-1285. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29425678
9 Maria P. de Miguel, I. Prieto, et al. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Liver Regeneration in Liver Failure: From Experimental Models to Clinical Trials. Stem Cells International. 2019:3945672 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2019/3945672/
10 Wang YH, Wu DB, Chen B, et al. Progress in mesenchymal stem cellÃ¢ÂÂbased therapy for acute liver failure. Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2018;9(1):227 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109312/
11 Crippa S, Bernardo ME. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Role in the BM Niche and in the Support of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. HemaSphere. 2018;2:6. https://journals.lww.com/hemasphere/Fulltext/2018/12000/Mesenchymal_Stromal_Cells__Role_in_the_BM_Niche.5.aspx
12 Damien P, Allan DS. Regenerative Therapy and Immune Modulation Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21(9):1545-54. https://www.bbmt.org/article/S1083-8791(15)00379-1/pdf
13 Zhao L, Chen S, Yang P, et al. The role of mesenchymal stem cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease. Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2019; 10: 182 https://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-019-1287-9
14 Clinical trials .Gov Website. Last accessed September 25, 2019 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=diabetes+mesenchymal+stem+cells&Search=Apply&recrs=b&recrs=a&recrs=f&recrs=d&recrs=e&age_v=&gndr=&type=&rslt=
15 Zhang Z, Fu J, Xu X, et al. Safety and immunological responses to human mesenchymal stem cell therapy in difficult-to-treat HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 2013; 27(8): 1283,1293 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925377
16 ClinicalTrials.org registry NCT01090817, NCT01157650, NCT01659762, NCT00294112, NCT00482092, NCT03901235, NCT03449069, NCT00543374, NCT03220243, NCT02445547. Last accessed September 25, 2019
17 ClinicalTrials.org registry NCT02904941, NCT03162367, NCT00856934, NCT00832156,NCT02145130, NCT03227146, NCT03229564, NCT02948023, NCT04030754, NCT03754218, NCT01655407, NCT02947737, NCT02765737, NCT00548314, NCT02325843, NCT03048188, NCT03913481, NCT02779205, NCT03791710, NCT02577861, NCT03686449. Last accessed September 25, 2019
18 Huang L, Wong YP, Gu H, et al. Stem cell-like properties of human umbilical cord lining epithelial cells and the potential for epidermal reconstitution. Cytotherapy. 2011;13:14555. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735166
19 ClinicalTrials.org registry NCT00459290, NCT00841581, NCT03916679,NCT03687632,NCT03608293, NCT02586883, NCT01722656, NCT00003704, NCT00667641, NCT02573324, NCT01166763, NCT01376349, NCT00999531, NCT00335491, NCT03519178, NCT00291135, NCT01635231. Last accessed September 25, 2019
20 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=mesenchymal&age_v=&gndr=&type=Intr& . Last accessed September 8 2020.
21 Battiwalla M, Hematti P. 2010. Cytotherapy. 1 January 2010.
22Afarid M, Sanie-Jahromi F. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and COVID-19: Cure, Prevention, and Vaccination. Stem Cells International 2021. 2021;0705:1-12
23Lim R, Hodge A, Moore G, et al. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Safety of Intravenously Administered Human Amnion Epithelial Cells for the Treatment of Hepatic Fibrosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8:549.
24Lim RHG, Liew JXK, Wee A, et al. Safety Evaluation of Human Cord-Lining Epithelial Stem Cells Transplantation for Liver Regeneration in a Porcine Model. Cell Transplant. 2020 Jan-Dec; 29:963689719896559.
25Lebreton F, Lavallard V, Bellofatto K, et al. Insulin-producing organoids engineered from islet and amniotic epithelial cells to treat diabetes. Nat Commun. 2019; 10, 4491.
26Zhou Y, Gan SU, Lin G, et al. Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord Lining-Derived Epithelial Cells and Transplantation Potential. Cell Transplantation. 2011; 20(11-12):1827-1841.
27Fujino A, Cuchimoto Y, Mori T, et al. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of autologous oral mucosa-derived epithelial cell sheet transplantation for prevention of anastomotic restenosis in congenital esophageal atresia and congenital esophageal stenosis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2023; 14, 86.
28Kanetaka K, Eguchi S. Regenerative medicine for the upper gastrointestinal tract. Regenerative Therapy. 2020; 15, 129-137.
Worldwide research on diseases treated with MSCs by various universities and research institutions:
|Diseases||Name of Universities/Research Institutions|
|Acute Graft vs Host Disease||University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, United States1|
|Alzheimer's disease||Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea2|
|Cerebral palsy||Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina, United States3|
|Chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy||Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China4|
|Diabetes Type 1||University Medical School, Nanjing, China5|
Van Hanh General Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam6
|Diabetes Type 2||Van Hanh General Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam7|
|Left ventricular dysfunction||Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth PeopleÃ¢ÂÂs Hospital, Shanghai, China8|
|Liver failure||Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Shaanxi, China9|
|Osteoarthritis||Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia10|
|Parkinson's disease||University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan11|
|Rheumatoid arthritis||Stem Cell Institue, Panama City, Panama12|
Xijing Hospital, Shaanxi, China13
Chonnam National University Hospital,
Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital,
Konkuk University Medical Center,
Kyung Hee University Hospital,
Seoul National University Boramae,
Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea14
|Spinal cord injury||Hospital de Neurorehabilitació, Barcelona, Spain15|
|Knee osteoarthritis||Liaocheng City People's Hospital, Shandong, China16|
|Systemic lupus erythematosus||Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States17|
1 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03158896. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
2 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02054208. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
3 Clinical Trials website. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT03473301. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
4 Clinical Trials website. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02635464. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
5 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02763423. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
6 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03484741. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
7 Clinical Trials website. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT03943940. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
8 Clinical Trials website. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT03902067. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
9 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03668171. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
10 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03800810. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
11 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03684122. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
12 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01985464. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
13 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03798028. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
14 Clinical Trials website. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT03618784. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
15 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03003364. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
16 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03166865. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
17 Clinical Trials website. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02633163. Last accessed September 25, 2019.
Worldwide research on diseases treated with epithelial cells (ECs) by various universities and research institutions
|Diseases||Name of Universities/Research Institutions|
|Skin wound||Singapore General Hospital Burn Centre|
|Ocular surface disorders||Singapore Eye Research Institute|
Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan
|Persistent epithelial defect||National Eye Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam|
DCR No. 4525, Version C, January 2022.